Almost the only ones which are frequently used are the abbreviations for certain common titles, when these are used with someone's name: Mr Willis, Dr Livingstone, Mrs Thatcher, Ms Harmon, St Joan. (These are the usual French and Spanish abbreviations for Monsieur and Señor, equivalent to English Mister.) Observe that each of these abbreviations begins with a capital letter. The abbreviated forms are best confined to places like footnotes and captions of pictures. Increasingly, however, there is a tendency to write such initials without full stops: John D Rockefeller, C Aubrey Smith, O J Simpson. Note also that, when an abbreviation comes at the end of a sentence, only one full stop is written. Many large and well-known organizations and companies have very long names which are commonly abbreviated to a set of initials written in capital letters, usually with no full stops.(Note that the two items Mrs and Ms are conventionally treated as abbreviations, even though they can be written in no other way.) When writing about a French or Spanish person, you may use the abbreviations for the French and Spanish equivalents of the English titles: M. Other titles are sometimes abbreviated in the same way: Prof. Note carefully the use of full stops in these abbreviations. And note the rare special case illustrated by Harry S Truman: the S in this name never takes a full stop, because it's not an abbreviation for anything; President Truman's parents actually gave him the middle name S. Here are a few familiar examples: These and some others are so famous that you can safely use the abbreviated forms without explanation.I consider this a ghastly practice, and I urge you strongly not to imitate it. has only one full stop, since et `and' is a complete word in Latin.) One final point: very many people who should know better use the Latin abbreviation cf., which properly means `compare', merely to refer to published work.
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Otherwise, however, you should try to avoid the use of abbreviations in your formal writing.
The frequent use of unnecessary abbreviations will make your text irritating and hard to read.
and prefer an English word like about or approximately: Do not write "..ca. This is an abbreviation for the Latin phrase et cetera `and other things', and it is pronounced ET SETRA, and not *EK SETRA. Again, if you avoid Latin abbreviations, you won't fall into such traps. Observe that it is usual to write Latin abbreviations in italics, but this is not strictly essential, and many people don't bother.
Finally, there are two further (and highly objectionable) Latin abbreviations ibid. There has recently been a fashion in some circles for writing Latin abbreviations without full stops, and you may come across things like ie and eg in your reading.If neither birth date nor death date is known for sure, then each is preceded by ca. It should never be used in careful writing: it is vague and sloppy and, when applied to people, rather offensive.Outside of parentheses, you should usually avoid the use of ca. Do not write something like this: If you do find yourself using etc., for heaven's sake spell it and punctuate it correctly. Such monstrosities make your writing look hopelessly illiterate.An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word (or phrase) but is pronounced identically to the long form of the word. is pronounced “Mister.” Abbreviations are commonly used to save time and space.While some are followed by a period (such as Mr., Prof., ft. are not shortened forms of other words (so they are not abbreviations). Click on a letter to see the abbreviations beginning with that letter.Most of the words listed are only abbreviated in certain contexts, esp. and Feb.), others are not (such as cm, min, NY, and mph). In fact, abbreviation itself is commonly abbreviated as abbrev.In this guide we will show you the proper way to use abbreviations and share rules which you can use to abbreviate words on your own.It is very poor style to spatter your page with these things, and it could be disastrous to use them without being quite sure what they mean.If you do use one, make sure you punctuate it correctly. The recommended form is this: Using a Latin abbreviation does not relieve you of the obligation of punctuating your sentence.