Cyclothymic disorder, or cyclothymia, refers to recurring hypomanic and depressive mood shifts over at least a two-year period in adults.
According to the National Institute of Mental Health, an estimated 4.4 percent of adults in the United States experience a bipolar disorder at some point in their lifetime.
The manic symptoms may be so severe that hospitalization is required.
Bipolar II refers to the presence of a current or past hypomanic episode, which is a slightly less severe form of mania lasting at least four consecutive days, as well as the presence of a current or past episode of major depression.
Additionally, persons experiencing mania may display suddenly inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, talkativeness and distractibility, and often engage in activities that have high potential for painful consequences (gambling, heavy spending, sexual indiscretions).
Hypomania is similar to mania in that the disturbance in mood and the change in functioning are observable by others, but the episode is not severe enough to cause major impairment in social or occupational functioning or to require hospitalization.Bipolar disorders are typically marked by the occurrence of at least one depressive episode.A depressive episode is characterized by depressed mood, or loss of pleasure or interest, or feelings of hopelessness for at least two weeks.More than 90 percent of people who have a single manic episode go on to have recurrent episodes of mania or depression.People experiencing a manic episode are often described as excessively cheerful or "feeling on top of the world." Often, however, the dominant mood during a manic episode is irritability.Bipolar disorder is often not recognized, or may be confused with other conditions, and people may suffer for years before they receive appropriate treatment.According to the DSM-5, a manic episode is manifest in an excessively euphoric, expansive, or irritable mood for most of a day, every day for at least a week, and is accompanied by abnormally and persistently increased activity and energy.Typically, unusual shifts in mood and energy manifest in increased activity levels and impair ability to function.The impairment created by bipolar disorder can be severe and can result in damaged relationships, poor job or school performance, and even suicide.Often, a manic person's thoughts race faster than they can be expressed; the result may be abrupt shifts in topic and pressured and incoherent speech.Sometimes during a manic episode people display hostility and angry tirades, particularly if an attempt is made to interrupt them.