There are 3 options: (1) Place original author(s) and year in the signal phrase or brackets and use the phrase “as cited in.” before the actual source; (2) Include in-text citation(s) to the original source(s) in a quote; or (3) Use a phrase such as “According to a research study” or “The research has demonstrated” to refer to the original source(s): Example 1: Smith (the secondary source) refers to the ideas of Johnson (the original source): Option 1 - Johnson (2008) argued that the Calgary stampede is rooted in conservative political ideologies (as cited in Smith, 2013, pp. In the References list at the end of your assignment, only cite the source by Smith. (the secondary source) cite multiple research studies (the original sources): Option 2 - An increasing amount of critical analysis and evidence have undermined "the notion that digital natives have a unique aptitude for digital technologies (Hargittai & Feldman, 2010; Jones & Czerniewicz, 2010; Hope, 2011)” (Holden et al., 2012, p. OR *A digital object identifier (doi) is a combination of letters and numbers assigned to a publication in electronic (online) format, such as a journal article in a database.Tags: Pleasing Child EssayCollege Essays On BuddhismCandide Essay TopicsSocial Problem Solving ActivitiesSolve A Word Problem For MeHamlet Yorick'S Skull EssayBusiness Management Dissertation IdeasPale Fire Critical EssayEssay On Integrity In The Workplace
The complete reference is then included in a list on the last page of the document.
Common parenthetical systems include APA, Harvard, and MLA The following online tutorial demonstrates how to reference and cite material using APA style as an example.
In academia, bibliographies are graded on their accuracy against the official APA rulebook, so it is important for students to ensure their citations are formatted correctly.
Special attention should also be given to ensure the entire document (including main body) is structured according to the APA guidelines.
A reference list entry is only needed if you read or listened to the interview/presentation in a print or electronically published source.
If you want to use a source quoted, paraphrased, or summarized in a source, cite or refer to original source(s) IN-TEXT ONLY and cite the actual source you are using both in-text and in the reference list.
Click here to learn more about finding a doi in the library's catalogue/databases.
Referencing is an essential part of academic writing.
This is a good introduction to the various elements of referencing and citing in academic literature.
Browse popular topics on the APA Style site: APA Style Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS) Article Bias-free language Digital Object Identifier (DOI) Ethics Grammar and usage References Sample papers Statistics Tutorials | This free tutorial is designed for those who have no previous knowledge of APA Style.