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Here are some titles from recent issues of professional journals published by the American Psychological Association.Below the title are the authors’ names and, on the next line, their institutional affiliation—the university or other institution where the authors worked when they conducted the research.The dining room was described as similar to a fine restaurant except that tipping was not required.
In this section, we look at how to write an APA-style empirical research report, an article that presents the results of one or more new studies.
Recall that the standard sections of an empirical research report provide a kind of outline.
Individual researchers differ quite a bit in their preference for such titles.
Some use them regularly, while others never use them.
For student papers that are not being submitted for publication—including theses—author notes are generally not necessary. It is the second page of the manuscript and is headed with the word Abstract. The abstract presents the research question, a summary of the method, the basic results, and the most important conclusions.
Because the abstract is usually limited to about 200 words, it can be a challenge to write a good one.Like any effective argument, the literature review must have some kind of structure.For example, it might begin by describing a phenomenon in a general way along with several studies that demonstrate it, then describing two or more competing theories of the phenomenon, and finally presenting a hypothesis to test one or more of the theories.At the end of the meeting, the friend’s mother was asked whether she had any questions.She replied that she only had one question: “Should I tip? 3) Although both humour and personal anecdotes are generally discouraged in APA-style writing, this example is a highly effective way to start because it both engages the reader and provides an excellent real-world example of the topic under study.This feeling of discomfort was called cognitive dissonance by social psychologist Leon Festinger (1957), who suggested that individuals will be motivated to remove this dissonance in whatever way they can (p. After capturing the reader’s attention, the opening should go on to introduce the research question and explain why it is interesting. He opened his article with the following humourous anecdote: A friend whose mother is suffering symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) tells the story of taking her mother to visit a nursing home, preliminary to her mother’s moving there.During an orientation meeting at the nursing home, the rules and regulations were explained, one of which regarded the dining room.An APA-style research report begins with a title page.The title is centred in the upper half of the page, with each important word capitalized.The introduction includes three distinct subsections, although these are typically not identified by separate headings.The opening introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting, the literature review discusses relevant previous research, and the closing restates the research question and comments on the method used to answer it.