This research, which is part of the ARC Linkage project: Lifeways of the First Australians, analyses stone artefacts from excavated and surface assemblages in the southern Kimberley region.
This thesis by compilation focuses on the technological development of points, which are a distinctive, Holocene component of the Australian lithic suite, in order to test a series of hypotheses, which are presented in a collection of published manuscripts, and unpublished manuscripts currently being reviewed. When a stone is worked into a tool, it reduces in size, with some fragments resulting in usable pieces, others in debitage.
These ideologies maintained and reproduced the social structure, as adhering to the ideals of respectability was the key for individuals to gain and maintain their social status. I can conclude that macropods were the primary animal used.
Of note this research has also reclassified species and added new information in this regard.
Taking into account the above considerations it is suggested that the use of bone tools at Ngaut Ngaut possibly fluctuates over time.
It is also apparent that people using the rockshelter had and maintained preferences in relation to the animals and animal parts used to make bone tools.Chapter 4 provides detailed examination of a large, excavated point assemblage from the Mt Behn rock shelter.This analysis demonstrates that points were produced within a reduction continuum, where changes in reduction intensity and artefact morphology were sensitive to environmental change during the mid to late Holocene.This research also shows that the people using the Ngaut Ngaut rockshelter preferred making bone tools out of fibulae, which was proven to be the case over a long period of time.Grinding has been revealed to be the most common form of bone modification.Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Education, Humanities and Law, Flinders University Master of Archaeology and Heritage Management thesis (by coursework with a research component) submitted June 2016 [email protected] thesis presents the first technological analysis of previously excavated stone artefact assemblages from Allen’s Cave, South Australia.Recent climate proxy records for the Allen’s Cave region indicate that during the period from initial human occupation to the mid-Holocene, 39,800 ± 3100 BP to 5000 BP, two significant environmental fluctuations occurred. 30,000–19,000 BP) brought hyper-aridity never previously or since encountered by Aboriginal Australians, while local conditions during the early Holocene (c. Using a technological approach, the lithics from before, during and after the LGM and early Holocene are analysed in order to examine whether, and if so how, inhabitants of this arid zone rockshelter responded to the contrasting environments through their stone technology.Chapter 6 presents a remarkable point from Carpenters Gap 1, which was recovered with sizable portions of adhering hafting resin, an organic resin which was directly dated.This artefact provides the most compelling evidence for hafting technology used in the mid to late Holocene, and reveals that people were hafting small, lightly reduced points with both mastic and binding.The process of reduction forms the basic premise for this thesis, where reduction is quantified by a morphological methodology outlined in Chapters 1 and 2, and applied to a number of assemblages in order to reconstruct the life history of stone tools from the Kimberley region (Chapters 3 – 7).Chapter 3 presents a robust chronology for point technology in the Kimberley region, where direct percussion points first appear in the archaeological record between 6,000 and 5,000 years ago, and Kimberley Points appear within the last 1,000 years.