Foreign assistance was linked with propaganda to further American interests: for instance, a National Security Council (NSC) report in 1952 said that aid programs should be designed to achieve "psychological" objectives. 59] To this end, the State Department's Office of Near Eastern Affairs argued in 1953 against economic assistance for Egypt under Gamal Abdel Nasser, then promoting African and Asian nonalignment, to show Middle Eastern government that "moderation, reasonableness and some degree of cooperation by the recipients with respect to United States basic objectives will lead to substantial economic assistance; while on the other hand Arab (or Israeli) extremism and lack of cooperation will result in far less or no aid." [Doc. planned and executed by the Iranian Government in cooperation with the Embassy." [Doc. 127] Iran's Ministry of Education cooperated with the American embassy in planning "activities in the educational field" for Iranian students. 71] For wider, not necessarily literate audiences, movies were understood to be especially effective in spreading American social values. 58] Points of view to be presented in such films were to be controlled, if possible: the State Department was advised to approach an American film distributor to ensure that "pro-Russian" movies (like "Red Star", a World War II-era film about Nazi occupation of a Russian village) were not shown in "critical areas," such as Iran. 12] American embassy officials in that country wanted to show animated films featuring characters like Mickey Mouse, and asked if, "in the light of the increasing tempo of the cold war, Mr. The British government, however, was determined to retain its control of Iranian oil resources, and sought support from its American ally. media how it wanted the British-Iranian oil dispute to be covered: show minimal interest, and minimize Iranian statements regarding legal aspects of the oil issue: "Avoid statements that would indicate U. concern over fate of Iran or will bail Iran out in a showdown. Additionally, VOA might pick up such editorials or articles and play them on Persian program without any indication U. 78] Without irony, a State Department cable declared one month after the British-American coup in Iran that a primary propaganda goal was "Allaying Iranian distrust of 'outsiders' (U. in this case) by repeating and reiterating sole interest U. in Iran is in free, independent, strengthened Iran capable taking her place in community free nations." [Doc. in Korea;" this recommendation was made shortly before allied forces became bogged down in a quagmire similar to what would ensue years later in Vietnam. 10] The State Department welcomed a suggestion for a "friendly display of force to strengthen the American position" by either sending ships to the Persian Gulf or planes to the Dhahran Air Base in Saudi Arabia. wanted to be respected for its military power and also admired as a peace-loving nation, differentiating itself from a violent and disruptive Soviet Union. taken in interest of strengthening machinery for settling disputes peacefully . 103] Princeton lecturer (and former president of the American University of Beirut) Bayard Dodge met with William Eddy (of the CIA and ARAMCO) about financial support from oil companies for the colloquium, to supplement a grant from the State Department, while the printing in Arabic of conference papers was to be paid for by Franklin Publications. 26] Abd al-Aziz's son shared his thoughts on these matters with U. To please the influential ulama allied with the Saudi royal family, he planned to initially publish religious tracts.
In general, however, I told him that we would welcome such a movement under his leadership because we could be sure that it would be friendly and wisely led." [Doc.
55] Image versus Reality The idealized image to be projected in the Middle East of a freedom-loving America was contradicted by the U. government's mutually beneficial relationships with autocratic regimes in the region.
S., in response to international developments, has attempted to revitalize its propaganda activities in the Middle East.
An earlier episode occurred early in the Cold War, during the Truman and Eisenhower administrations, when the U. was expanding efforts to incorporate the region into a global anti-Soviet alliance. interests of the diminished post-World War II abilities of Britain and France to project Western power and influence in the area, and by the enormous increase in anti-Western feeling that had been generated by the establishment of Israel.