C. Diff Toxin Essay

C. Diff Toxin Essay-22
Interestingly, the study found that the activities of all REG genes were upregulated not only in IBD but also in patients with pseudomembranous colitis.The implication from this study is that the function of the REG family of genes is more generalized in response to inflammation.

Interestingly, the study found that the activities of all REG genes were upregulated not only in IBD but also in patients with pseudomembranous colitis.The implication from this study is that the function of the REG family of genes is more generalized in response to inflammation.Furthermore, the number of patients with a primary diagnosis of CDI more than tripled, from 33,000 to 111,000., has also risen in Europe and Canada.

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In the 1980s, Mc Farland et al reported that 7% of patients admitted to a hospital and 28% of patients who were hospitalized had positive cultures for the organism.

By the 1990s, the incidence of Indeed, in contrast to the incidence rates of other nosocomial infections, which declined from 2000 to 2009, the number of hospitalized patients with any CDI as a discharge diagnosis more than doubled in the same period, from approximately 139,000 to 336,600.

Once rising white blood cell count or hemodynamic instability occurs and fulminant colitis is imminent, subtotal colectomy with end ileostomy is often necessary.

Fecal bacteriotherapy and immunotherapy are investigative treatment strategies that have potential for managing patients with severe CDI.

colitis should be suspected in any patient with diarrhea who has received antibiotics within the previous 3 months, has been recently hospitalized, and/or has an occurrence of diarrhea within 48 hours or more after hospitalization. Endoscopy may demonstrate the presence of raised, yellowish white, 2- to 10-mm plaques overlying an erythematous and edematous mucosa. Endoscopic findings may be normal in patients with mild disease or may demonstrate nonspecific colitis in moderate cases.

Among various investigational therapies, fecal microbiota transplantation (fecal enemas or infusion of donor feces through a nasoduodenal tube) has been reported to repopulate the colonic flora and treat recurrent CDI.

Classic pseudomembranes are visible as raised, yellow plaques ranging from 2 to 10 mm in diameter and scattered over the colorectal mucosa.

Courtesy of Gregory Ginsberg, MD, University of Pennsylvania. Barium enema demonstrating the typical serrated appearance of the barium column (resulting from trapped barium between the edematous mucosal folds and the plaquelike membranes of pseudomembranous colitis).

Note that although intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and tigecycline have been used in patients with severe refractory disease, delaying surgery may lead to worse outcomes.

(See Treatment and Medication.) produce 2 distinct toxins.

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