If you cite the same source again, or if a bibliography is included in the work, the note only needs to include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title (if more than four words), and the page number(s).
However, in a work that does not include a bibliography, it is recommended that the full citation be repeated when it is first used in a new chapter.
Footnotes are added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, while endnotes are compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document.
In either case, a superscript number corresponding to a note, along with the bibliographic information for that source, should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.
In the NB system, the footnote or endnote itself begins with the appropriate full-sized number, followed by a period and then a space.
In the NB system, the bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources used in a given work.
Though the two systems both convey all of the important information about each source, they differ not only in terms of the way they direct readers to these sources, but also in terms of their formatting (e.g., the position of dates in citation entries).
For examples of how these citation styles work in research papers, consult our sample papers: Author-Date Sample Paper NB Sample Paper In addition to consulting (8th edition).
Although bibliographic entries for various sources may be formatted differently, all included sources (books, articles, websites, etc.) are arranged alphabetically by author’s last name.
If no author or editor is listed, the title or, as a last resort, a descriptive phrase may be used.