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Under the impact of ‘behavioural’ or ‘scientific’ approach vigorous attempts have been made to render Political Science of the order of Physics and Chemistry.
They comprise roughly one-third of the total population of the country.
They are made up of (i) the Scheduled Tribes, (ii) The Scheduled Castes and (iii) the Other Backward Classes.
The Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes are well defined categories in the Indian Constitution.
The other backward classes are not listed and defined.
The social hierarchy of Indian society operating through several centuries imposed a number of burdens on the so called lower classes including the untouchables.
As a result some classes advanced socially and economically at the cost of lower classes.In Article 16 (4), mention is made of backward classes and their inadequate representation in service.The scientific study of Political Science is popularly known as political behaviouralism.The Indian Constitution is silent on the definition of the backward classes.We find, however, the characteristics of backward classes described and spread over the different Articles of the Constitution.In article 16 (4), mention is made of backward classes and their inadequate representation in services.Article 46 refers to weaker section of the people in which the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are included.It states that the state shall promote with special care the educational and economic advancement of the weaker section of the people, in particular the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.Finally, there is the Article 340 which makes provision for the State Government to investigate the condition of the backward classes.The term ‘class’ signifies a form of social stratification.It is defined as a stratum of people who share similar socio-economic status or position.