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The unethical and often illegal nature of corruption makes measurement particularly complicated.Corruption data usually comes from either direct observation (e.g.The Global Corruption Barometer produced by Transparency International asks individuals across countries whether they perceive specific institutions to be corrupt.
As we can see, the five countries with the highest scores (and thus perceived as most ‘clean’) are Denmark, New Zealand, Finland, Singapore and Sweden.
This entry presents available data and empirical evidence on corruption—an important problem imposing political, economic, and environmental costs on societies around the world.
Corruption is a phenomenon involving many different aspects, and it is therefore hard to give a precise and comprehensive definition.
law enforcement records and audit reports), or perception surveys (e.g. In this entry we discuss data from both sources, and discuss their underlying limitations.
As we show, although precise corruption measurement is difficult, there is a clear correlation between ; so available corruption data does provide valuable information that, when interpreted carefully, can both tell us something important about our world as well as contribute to the development of effective policies.