Five of the leading questions are examined here: (1) Will genetic modiﬁcations risk the health of the resulting children?(2) Will modiﬁcations reduce the willingness of parents to love and accept their children?
Five of the leading questions are examined here: (1) Will genetic modiﬁcations risk the health of the resulting children?(2) Will modiﬁcations reduce the willingness of parents to love and accept their children?Tags: My Dissertation Welcome GraduationHow To Prepare A Good Business PlanA Child Is The Father Of A Man EssayCoursework Or Course WorkEssay The Things I CarryDave Barry Guys Vs Men Thesis
At the same time, this technology will also make possible the introduction of novel sequences having nothing to do with disease, opening the possibility of gene enhancement and designer babies in the most commonly used meaning of this term.
With the exception of gene modiﬁcations inserted late in a pregnancy and targeted only at developed organs in the fetus, preconception and prenatal gene editing constitute germline as opposed to somatic gene modiﬁcation.
Although the selected embryo in such cases may not be at risk for the genetic disease, the use of its tissue to save the life of a sibling theoretically places this kind of intervention in the camp of acceptable disease prevention genetic interventions.
However, this does not eliminate the attendant ethical dimensions.
The phrase “designer babies” can indicate a range of genetic interventions from disease-preventing embryo selection to genetic modiﬁcations aimed at providing enhanced traits and abilities.
In this range, enhancements raise the sharpest ethical questions.Recently, the addition of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing has brought targeted gene modiﬁcations much closer to reality.With gene editing, reproductive clinicians will be able to assist parents carrying genetic diseases to avoid adoption or gamete donation and have children with the parents’ own genetic makeup but without the harmful familial sequences.A vaccine to protect the individual against polio infection, or a gene modiﬁcation with the same effect, thus constitutes an enhancement.But because preventions are disease related, they are reasonably classed with treatments.(3) Will genetically modiﬁed individuals suffer a reduced sense of freedom or self-esteem?(4) Will genetic interventions heighten social injustice?At one edge of this range is the use of PGD to select embryos with the same HLA tissue type as an existing sibling suffering from a fatal disease and for whom the embryo, once born, can serve as a bone marrow donor.After initially prohibiting the creation of such “savior children” in the Whitaker case in 2002, the HFEA revised its policy in 2004.But more controversial is the use of PGD for sex selection in cases where no sex-linked genetic disease is involved.This has still not been approved by Britain’s HFEA because many see it as a signiﬁcant and objectionable step across the line to designer babies.