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It is conceivable that multiple statistical tests could yield a significant finding by chance alone rather than reflecting a true effect.Integrity is compromised if the investigator only reports tests with significant findings, and neglects to mention a large number of tests failing to reach significance.
Kendall and Grove (1988) define clinical significance in terms of what happens when “…
troubled and disordered clients are now, after treatment, not distinguishable from a meaningful and representative non-disturbed reference group”.
If it the study is exploratory in nature, the investigator should make this explicit so that readers understand that the research is more of a hunting expedition rather than being primarily theory driven.
Although a researcher may not have a theory-based hypothesis for testing relationships between previously untested variables, a theory will have to be developed to explain an unanticipated finding.
If one uses unconventional norms, it is crucial to clearly state this is being done, and to show how this new and possibly unaccepted method of analysis is being used, as well as how it differs from other more traditional methods. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 22(3): 280-297.
Dissertation Data Analysis Plan Oxford Smart Thinking - Skills For Critical Understanding And Writing
For example, Schroder, Carey, and Vanable (2003) juxtapose their identification of new and powerful data analytic solutions developed to count data in the area of HIV contraction risk with a discussion of the limitations of commonly applied methods. According to Smeeton and Goda (2003), “Statistical advice should be obtained at the stage of initial planning of an investigation so that, for example, the method of sampling and design of questionnaire are appropriate”.The chief aim of analysis is to distinguish between an event occurring as either reflecting a true effect versus a false one.When failing to demonstrate statistically different levels between treatment groups, investigators may resort to breaking down the analysis to smaller and smaller subgroups in order to find a difference.Although this practice may not inherently be unethical, these analyses should be proposed before beginning the study even if the intent is exploratory in nature.If one uses unconventional norms, it is crucial to clearly state this is being done, and to show how this new and possibly unaccepted method of analysis is being used, as well as how it differs from other more traditional methods. For example, Schroder, Carey, and Vanable (2003) juxtapose their identification of new and powerful data analytic solutions developed to count data in the area of HIV contraction risk with a discussion of the limitations of commonly applied methods. Research on teaching in physical education doctoral dissertations: a detailed investigation of focus, method, and analysis. Conducting and presenting social work research: some basic statistical considerations. While data analysis in qualitative research can include statistical procedures, many times analysis becomes an ongoing iterative process where data is continuously collected and analyzed almost simultaneously.Indeed, researchers generally analyze for patterns in observations through the entire data collection phase (Savenye, Robinson, 2004).Improper statistical analyses distort scientific findings, mislead casual readers (Shepard, 2002), and may negatively influence the public perception of research.Integrity issues are just as relevant to analysis of non-statistical data as well.