Cigarette smoking and exposure to tobacco smoke cause about 480,000 premature deaths each year in the United States (1).
Of those premature deaths, about 36% are from cancer, 39% are from heart disease and stroke, and 24% are from lung disease (1).
Changes in wages associated with changes in smoking behavior and models that utilize sibling comparisons are estimated to address the potential heterogeneity problem.
Estimates from alternative specifications all indicate that smoking reduces wages by roughly 4-8%.
Both of these shifts may be due to changes in cigarette design and composition, in how tobacco leaves are cured, and in how deeply smokers inhale cigarette smoke and the toxicants it contains (1, 8).