The federal government sought to integrate the West into the country as a social and economic replica of the North.
Land redistribution on a massive scale formed the centerpiece of reform.
They set in motion developments that would shape the country for generations—the reunification of the South and North, the integration of four million newly freed African Americans, westward expansion, immigration, industrialization, urbanization.
It was also a period of reform, in which many Americans sought to regulate corporations and shape the changes taking place all around them.
They stress greed, scandals, and corruption of the Gilded Age.
Twain and Warner were not wrong about the era’s corruption, but the years between 18 were also some of the most momentous and dynamic in American history.The treaty system had officially ended in 1871, but Americans continued to negotiate agreements with the Indians.The goal of these agreements, and American land policy in general, was to create millions of new farms and ranches across the West.Although attempts at interracial politics would prove briefly successful in Virginia and North Carolina, African American efforts to preserve the citizenship and rights promised to black men in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution failed.Congress continued to pursue a version of reform in the West, however, as part of a Greater Reconstruction.The United States thus accepted a developing system of repression and segregation in the South that would take the name Jim Crow and persist for nearly a century.The freed people in the South found their choices largely confined to sharecropping and low-paying wage labor, especially as domestic servants.Sitting Bull would eventually return to the United States, but he died in 1890 at the hands of the Indian police during the Wounded Knee crisis.The defeat of the Lakotas and the utterly unnecessary Nez Perce War of 1877 ended the long era of Indian wars.One of the best uses of web information is to locate good primary and secondary sources that should be directly examined.Websites also go out of existence, so, for scholarly work, they are not reliable sources, like a published work which, presumably, will always be available in some library (Library of Congress) for examination.