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Referred to as deductive reasoning, they have to do with a logical formulation, or a syllogism. God created evil e.g., Christians could qualify premise 1: evil is not a thing or substance, but a privation.
The issue is, are there good grounds for believing in Christianity?
“You are against abortion because you are a Catholic.” Whether or not one is a Catholic is beside the point.
Getting the addict off drugs is the loving thing to do. This is a logical fallacy based on misrepresentation of an opponent’s position. It is always important that we clearly define our terms in a given argument, and make sure the other side knows and accepts our meanings of the terms. An emotional appeal that overlooks the facts of a case.
You present a misrepresentation or distortion of the opponent’s position, making it easier to refute. Example: “We should allow embryonic stem cell research so that Christopher Reeve can walk again.” This is not making an argument, it is appealing to our emotions. There is a place for authority, but often it is a misplaced appeal.
-An argument is valid when the conclusion necessarily follows from the premises. Therefore, all men are women This is a valid argument, but not sound, because a premise is not true: 1. There are quite a few such fallacies, but here I offer a dozen of the more common forms: Non sequitur (Latin, “it does not follow”).
In such an argument it is logically impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false. Therefore, Socrates is mortal (conclusion) This is an invalid argument (the conclusion does not follow from the premises): 1. An argument is a non sequitur if the conclusion does not follow from the premise.
The classification of informal fallacies may be subdivided into categories such as linguistic, relevance through omission, relevance through intrusion, and relevance through presumption.
On the other hand, fallacies may be classified by the process by which they occur, such as material fallacies (content), verbal fallacies (linguistic), and again formal fallacies (error in inference).
This is not the place to say much more about logical thinking in general, and the basic principles of logic.
Instead I here want to just focus on what are known as logical fallacies.