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For the task, the effects of a range of inhibitors of connexin channels, such as the connexin mimetic peptides Gap26 and Gap27 and anti-peptide antibodies, on calcium signaling in cardiac cells and He La cells expressing connexins. In any case, the paragraphs in these sections should begin with a topic sentence to prepare readers for their contents, allow selective reading, and — ideally — get a message across.Even the most logical structure is of little use if readers do not see and understand it as they progress through a paper. Most Materials and Methods sections are boring to read, yet they need not be.To spark interest among your audience — referees and journal readers alike — provide a compelling motivation for the work presented in your paper: The fact that a phenomenon has never been studied before is not, in and of itself, a reason to study that phenomenon.

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Here are three examples of such a combination: An Introduction is usually clearer and more logical when it separates what the authors have done (the task) from what the paper itself attempts or covers (the object of the document).

In other words, the task clarifies your contribution as a scientist, whereas the object of the document prepares readers for the structure of the paper, thus allowing focused or selective reading. " Although papers can be organized into sections in many ways, those reporting experimental work typically include Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion in their body.

Write four components, probably (but not necessarily) in four paragraphs: context, need, task, and object of the document.

At the beginning of the Introduction section, the context and need work together as a funnel: They start broad and progressively narrow down to the issue addressed in the paper.

Do not include context for the sake of including context: Rather, provide only what will help readers better understand the need and, especially, its importance.

Consider anchoring the context in time, using phrases such as recently, in the past 10 years, or since the early 1990s.Start by stating the actual situation (what we have) as a direct continuation of the context.If you feel you must explain recent achievements in much detail — say, in more than one or two paragraphs — consider moving the details to a section titled State of the art (or something similar) after the Introduction, but do provide a brief idea of the actual situation in the Introduction. Emphasize the contrast between the actual and desired situations with such words as but, however, or unfortunately.Scientific papers are for sharing your own original research work with other scientists or for reviewing the research conducted by others.As such, they are critical to the evolution of modern science, in which the work of one scientist builds upon that of others.To be accepted by referees and cited by readers, papers must do more than simply present a chronological account of the research work.Rather, they must convince their audience that the research presented is important, valid, and relevant to other scientists in the same field.Thus, as you organize the body of your paper into sections and perhaps subsections, remember to prepare your readers for the structure ahead at all levels. To make this section interesting, explain the choices you made in your experimental procedure: What justifies using a given compound, concentration, or dimension?You already do so for the overall structure of the body (the sections) in the object of the document at the end of the Introduction. What is special, unexpected, or different in your approach?They are more likely to be cited by other scientists if they are helpful rather than cryptic or self-centered.Scientific papers typically have two audiences: first, the referees, who help the journal editor decide whether a paper is suitable for publication; and second, the journal readers themselves, who may be more or less knowledgeable about the topic addressed in the paper.


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