Goals Essay Criminal Justice

The entire new system flows from the decision to cap the budget. Although he confined his comments to the legal system and the courts in the United Kingdom, and the extent of access to existing legal proceedings, Zander's analysis demonstrates how political goals of limited spending may affect the definition of access to justice goals and their achievement in both courts and other legal contexts.[1] As he suggested, definitions of access to justice in the legal context may have important consequences for social justice as well.

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A large number of imprisonments are due to crimes that are non-violent such as fraud (Berman & Fox, 2016).

Other ways can be employed to deal with such offenses.

Thus, recent decades have witnessed "first wave" changes to make legal representation of accused persons more effective (such as legal aid for accused persons); as well as "second wave" changes which have provided improvements to criminal trials (such as requirements of prosecutorial disclosure), a broader range of sentencing options (such as formal cautions and conditional sentences), and some recognition of the impact of criminal activity on victims and communities (such as victim impact statements) (Crawford in Young and Wall, eds. In this way, the early insights of the Florence Access-to-Justice Project are connected to new developments in both criminal and civil justice.

This analysis of access to justice initiatives in civil law and criminal law contexts suggests a need to reassess the continuing validity of distinctions between these categories.

The chapter focuses on three aspects of this analysis: Ideas about access to justice in Canada have been significantly influenced by the work of the Florence Access-to-Justice Project, a comparative assessment of initiatives worldwide, which has contributed to more broadly-based conceptions of access to justice (Cappelletti and Garth 1978; Cappelletti and Weisner 19; and Cappelletti and Garth 1979).

According to Cappelletti and Garth, there were three "waves" of access to justice reforms: the "first wave" of the movement involved provisions for legal aid; the "second wave" was a group of substantive and procedural reforms which enabled legal representation for more "diffuse" interests including environmental and consumer protection.

There are an estimated 2.2 million inmates in the US (Koenig, 2006).

The vast number of people in prisons costs the nation an estimated 50, 000 dollars per inmate annually.

To what extent should we theorize criminal law and civil law as two quite separate categories of justice responses - or is it more appropriate to think of them as points on a continuum?

This question is critical to any assessment of new developments in civil law and criminal law for settling disputes.


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