In short, a research topic is something to be understood; a research problem is something that needs to be investigated.
Research problems in the social and behavioral sciences are often analyzed around critical questions that must be investigated.
Compelling Topic The problem chosen should be one that motivates you to address it but simple curiosity is not a good enough reason to pursue a research study because this does not indicate significance.
The problem that you choose to explore must be important to you, but it must also be viewed as important by your readers and to a the larger academic and/or social community that could be impacted by the results of your study. Supports Multiple Perspectives The problem must be phrased in a way that avoids dichotomies and instead supports the generation and exploration of multiple perspectives.
Do not confuse a research problem with a research topic.
A topic is something to read and obtain information about, whereas a problem is something to be solved or framed as a question raised for inquiry, consideration, or solution, or explained as a source of perplexity, distress, or vexation.
Discussions with experts in the field, such as, teachers, social workers, health care providers, lawyers, business leaders, etc., offers the chance to identify practical, “real world” problems that may be understudied or ignored within academic circles.
This approach also provides some practical knowledge which may help in the process of designing and conducting your study.
Before you write your problem statement, think about the problem and your proposed solution, and be prepared to back it up with facts!
A research problem is a definite or clear expression [statement] about an area of concern, a condition to be improved upon, a difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists in scholarly literature, in theory, or within existing practice that points to a need for meaningful understanding and deliberate investigation. The research asks the question: “What relationship between variables will be observed if theory aptly summarizes the state of affairs?