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And as in the two other agreements, non-discrimination features prominently: national treatment (treating foreign nationals no less favourably than one’s own nationals), and most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment (not discriminating among nationals of trading partners).National treatment is also a key principle in other intellectual property agreements outside the WTO.
Marks that have become well-known in a particular country enjoy additional protection.
A name or indication associated with a place is sometimes used to identify a product.
The TRIPS Agreement defines what types of signs must be eligible for protection as trademarks, and what the minimum rights conferred on their owners must be.
It says that service marks must be protected in the same way as trademarks used for goods.
This “geographical indication” does not only say where the product comes from.
More importantly, it identifies the product’s special characteristics, which are the result of the product’s origins.The second part of the TRIPS Agreement looks at different kinds of intellectual property rights and how to protect them.The purpose is to ensure that minimum standards of protection exist in all WTO members.Innovation, creativity and branding represent a large amount of the value that changes hands in international trade today.How to enhance this value and how to facilitate the flow of knowledge-rich goods and services across borders have become integral considerations in development and trade policy."Intellectual property" refers to creations of the mind.These creations can take many different forms, such as artistic expressions, signs, symbols and names used in commerce, designs and inventions. For example, books, paintings and films come under copyright; eligible inventions can be patented; brand names and product logos can be registered as trademarks; and so on.The TRIPS Agreement says members have to provide ways to prevent such misuse of geographical indications.For wines and spirits, the TRIPS Agreement provides higher levels of protection, i.e.The WTO’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), negotiated during the 1986-94 Uruguay Round, introduced intellectual property rules into the multilateral trading system for the first time.The idea of trade, and what makes trade valuable for societies, has evolved beyond simply shipping goods across borders.