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Based on these reasoning, this paper shall include analytical and empirical studies to reveal the discrepancies and feasibility aspect of the domain, as Rai (2004) put forward; motivation is crucial for good performance and therefore it is increasingly important to study what motivates employees for better performance.This section offers a review of literature, which explores the concepts, types and theoretical aspects including content and process theories, theories of motivation developed in other psychological areas as well as empirical evidences in organizational contexts.
In the fierce era of competition, organizations nowadays are more emphasizing on the management of Human Resources (Robert. Motivation; a key strategy in Human Resource Management has helped practitioners largely enough to subject the term “Motivation” for a discussion. (2004), asserted that employee motivation plays a vital role in the management field; both theoretically and practically.
It is said that one of the important functions of human resource manager is to ensure job commitment at the workplace, which can only be achieved through motivation (Petcharak, 2002).
(Badu, 2005) Conversely, Bartol and Martin (1998) relate motivation to the force that stimulates behavior, provide direction to behavior, and underlies the tendency to prevail.
In other words individuals must be sufficiently stimulated and energetic, must have a clear focus on what is to be achieved, and must be willing to commit their energy for a long period of time to realize their aim in order to achieve goals.
This was also supported by Frey and Jegen (2001) who reviewed the literature on intrinsic motivations and found that the evidence does suggest that incentives sometimes do ”crowd-out” intrinsic motivations.
Besides, Frey (1997) suggests that the important matter is whether the external intervention is in the form of a command or a reward.According to the authors “the concept of motivation refers to internal factors that impel action and to external factors that can act as inducements to action.The three aspects of action that motivation can affect are direction (choice), intensity (effort), and duration (persistence).Furthermore, in line with the concept of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, De Charms (1968) suggest that external rewards might undermine intrinsic motivation.He further proposed that individuals seek for personal causation and because of the desire to be the “origin” of his behavior; man keeps struggling against the constraint of external forces.Motivation is defined as “a human psychological characteristic that add to a person’s degree of commitment.It is the management process of in¬‚uencing employees’ behavior”.However, other than motivation being a force that stimulates behavior, Vroom (1964) emphasized on the ‘voluntary actions’. (2004), Vroom (1964) defined motivation as “a process governing choice made by persons…among alternative forms of voluntary activity.” Similarly Kreitner and Kinicki (2004) assumed that motivation incorporate those psychological processes that create the arousal, direction and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal oriented.Quite differently from the other definitions, Locke and Latham (2004) identified that motivation influence people’s acquisition of skills and the extent to which they use their ability.Thus, De Charms hypothesized that when a man perceives his behavior as originating from his own choice, he will value that behavior and its results but when he perceives his behavior as originating from external forces, that behavior and its results, even though identical in other respects to behavior of his own choosing, will be devalued.De Charms (1968) further argued that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation may interact, rather than summate that is the introduction of extrinsic rewards for the behaviors that was intrinsically rewarding may decrease rather than enhance the overall motivation.