Marx was a believer in an inevitable revolution between capitalists, and the workers employed in their industries.He believed that the actual cost of any product is simply the price of material and most importantly, the labour employed to create it.Karl Marx (1818-1883) utilizes the rhetorical strategy of explicit word usage to convey his message dealing with alienation.
Marx was a believer in an inevitable revolution between capitalists, and the workers employed in their industries.He believed that the actual cost of any product is simply the price of material and most importantly, the labour employed to create it.Tags: Doctoral Dissertation AwardEssay Examination FearCollage Admission EssayHomework ExamplesPaper WritingsSite Essayage Coiffure
"Alienation (or "estrangement") means, for Marx, that man does not experience himself as the acting agent in his grasp of the world, but that the world (nature, others, and he himself) remain alien to him.
They stand above and against him as objects, even though th...
Karl Marx's theory of alienation describes the estrangement (Entfremdung) of people from aspects of their Gattungswesen ("species-essence") as a consequence of living in a society of stratified social classes.
The alienation from the self is a consequence of being a mechanistic part of a social class, the condition of which estranges a person from their humanity.
Moreover, Max Stirner extended Feuerbach's analysis in The Ego and its Own (1845) that even the idea of "humanity" is an alienating concept for individuals to intellectually consider in its full philosophic implication.
Marx and Friedrich Engels responded to these philosophic propositions in The German Ideology (1845).That is, the capitalist gains control of the manual and intellectual workers and the benefits of their labour, with a system of industrial production that converts said labour into concrete products (goods and services) that benefit the consumer.Moreover, the capitalist production system also reifies labour into the "concrete" concept of "work" (a job), for which the worker is paid wages—at the lowest-possible rate—that maintain a maximum rate of return on the capitalist's investment capital; this is an aspect of exploitation.The worker is bound to unwanted labour as a means of survival, labour is not "voluntary but coerced" (forced labor).The worker is only able to reject wage compulsion at the expense of their life and that of their family.The theoretical basis of alienation within the capitalist mode of production is that the worker invariably loses the ability to determine life and destiny when deprived of the right to think (conceive) of themselves as the director of their own actions; to determine the character of said actions; to define relationships with other people; and to own those items of value from goods and services, produced by their own labour.Although the worker is an autonomous, self-realized human being, as an economic entity this worker is directed to goals and diverted to activities that are dictated by the bourgeoisie—who own the means of production—in order to extract from the worker the maximum amount of surplus value in the course of business competition among industrialists.In the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 (1932), Karl Marx expressed the Entfremdung theory—of estrangement from the self.Philosophically, the theory of Entfremdung relies upon The Essence of Christianity (1841) by Ludwig Feuerbach which states that the idea of a supernatural god has alienated the natural characteristics of the human being.The distribution of private property in the hands of wealth owners, combined with government enforced taxes compel workers to labor.In a capitalist world, our means of survival is based on monetary exchange, therefore we have no other choice than to sell our labour power and consequently be bound to the demands of the capitalist.