Texas became a slave state upon entry into the Union. One interesting aspect of the war involves the fate of U. Army deserters of Irish origin who joined the Mexican Army as the Batalln San Patricio (Saint Patrick's Battalion). At this time in American history, Catholics were an ill-treated minority, and the Irish were an unwanted ethnic group in the United States. To this day, they are considered heroes in Mexico.5.
This group of Catholic Irish immigrants rebelled at the abusive treatment by Protestant, American-born officers and at the treatment of the Catholic Mexican population by the U. In Mexico, a special day is remembered to celebrate the bravery of the teenaged military cadets at the military academy at Chapultepec Castle, which was attacked by Scott's army on September 13, 1847.
The city's populace offered some resistance to the occupiers, but by mid-October, the disturbances had been quelled and the U. He attempted to continue military operations against the Americans, but his troops, beaten and disheartened, refused to fight. General Zachary "Old Rough and Ready" Taylor used his fame as a war hero to win the Presidency in 1848.
His government soon asked for his military resignation. agreed to pay $15 million to Mexico as compensation for the seized territory. Mexican military leadership was often lacking, at least when compared to the American leadership. A true irony is that President Polk, a Democrat, pushed for the war that led to Taylor, a Whig, winning the White House.3.
Partly due to the continued hostilities with Mexico, Texas decided to join with the United States, and on July 4, 1845, the annexation gained approval from the U. Texas, and now the United States, claimed the border at the Rio Grande River.
Mexico claimed territory as far north as the Nueces River.Following the capture of the city by the Americans, a temporary truce ensued which enabled both armies to recover from the exhausting Battle of Monterey.During this time, former President Santa Anna returned to Mexico from exile and raised and trained a new army of over 20,000 men to oppose the invaders.Soon however, many of the new "Texicans" or "Texians" were unhappy with the way the government in Mexico City tried to run the province.In 1835, Texas revolted, and after several bloody battles, the Mexican President, Santa Anna, was forced to sign the Treaty of Velasco in 1836 .Guerrilla operations continued against Scott's lines of supply back to Veracruz, but this resistance proved ineffective. The treaty called for the annexation of the northern portions of Mexico to the United States. The bravery of the individual Mexican soldier goes a long way in explaining the difficulty the U. And in many of the battles, the superior cannon of the U. artillery divisions and the innovative tactics of their officers turned the tide against the Mexicans. America had defeated its weaker and somewhat disorganized southern neighbor, but not without paying a terrible price. Despite early popularity at home, the war was marked by the growth of a loud anti-war movement which included such noted Americans as Ralph Waldo Emerson, former president John Quincy Adams and Henry David Thoreau.On February 2, 1848, The Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo was signed, later to be ratified by both the U. The war cost the United States over 0 million, and ended the lives of 13,780 U. The center of anti-war sentiment gravitated around New England, and was directly connected to the movement to abolish slavery. Army hanged sixteen surviving members of the San Patricios as traitors.The more important battles of this campaign include the Battles of : Cerro Gordo (April 18), Contreras (August 20), Churubusco (August 20), Molino del Rey (September 8) and Chapultepec (September 13).Finally, on September 14, the American army entered Mexico City. Following the city's occupation, Santa Anna resigned the presidency but retained command of his army.An invitation was issued for people who would take an oath of allegiance to Mexico and convert to Catholicism, the state religion.Thousands of Americans took up the offer and moved, often with slaves, to the Mexican province of Texas.