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This process of light element formation in the early universe is called Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN).
This text, in contrast, is concerned with the crucial question: If we want to test these predictions, how do we determine the original ("primordial") abundances of the different light nuclei?
Had the results been in conflict, it would point to 1) errors in the data, 2) an incomplete understanding of the process of Big Bang nucleosynthesis, 3) a misunderstanding of the mechanisms that produce fluctuations in the microwave background radiation, or 4) a more fundamental problem with the Big Bang theory.
Elements heavier than lithium are all synthesized in stars.
As lighter stars blow off their outer layers to form planetary nebula, or as heavier stars blast most of their substance into space in a supernova explosion, the fusion products are scattered over wide regions of space.
In order to test the predictions of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, we need to identify astronomical objects in which the original abundance values are preserved as well as possible - and we need to account for any remaining influences of chemical evolution.