Any heat radiated toward space by low-altitude water vapor keeps on going, as if the continent’s heat-trapping comforter had been ripped away in the middle of the night.
This negative greenhouse effect is in effect about 9 months out of the year, the team reports.
Venus may have had water oceans, but they would have boiled off as the mean surface temperature rose to 735 K (462 °C; 863 °F) The existence of the greenhouse effect was argued for by Joseph Fourier in 1824.
The argument and the evidence were further strengthened by Claude Pouillet in 18 and reasoned from experimental observations by Eunice Newton Foote in 1856.
Add to it another weather phenomenon called a temperature inversion, where the atmosphere warms as altitude increases, rather than growing colder, and things truly start to go awry.
“Antarctica is the only place in the world where the surface is colder than the stratosphere,” says Justus Notholt, an atmospheric physicist at the University of Bremen in Germany.“I like how the team’s analysis breaks down the effect” between CO and water vapor, says Karen Smith, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Toronto in Canada who is unaffiliated with the study.That approach clearly highlights what makes Antarctica unique, she adds.Earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared radiation.About 26% of the incoming solar energy is reflected to space by the atmosphere and clouds, and 19% is absorbed by the atmosphere and clouds.An ideal thermally conductive blackbody at the same distance from the Sun as Earth would have a temperature of about 5.3 °C (41.5 °F).However, because Earth reflects about 30% The greenhouse effect is the contribution of greenhouse gases to this difference.And despite its ice, it’s technically a desert thanks to a paucity of precipitation.This lack of moisture is one of the key factors behind the region’s “negative greenhouse effect,” says Sergio Sejas, an atmospheric scientist at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, who led a newly published investigation of this atmospheric quirk.Most of this thermal radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere and warms it.The atmosphere also gains heat by sensible and latent heat fluxes from the surface.