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Moreover, the impacts of decentralization, risk-taking culture, and learning forums are stronger in double-loop learning than in single-loop learning, while the impact of internal network is greater on single-loop learning than on double-loop learning.Low formalization, resources, and benchmarking, however, were unexpectedly found to have negative relationships with at least one type of organizational learning.In particular, the complex governance and unpredictable nature of the contemporary public sector environment have challenged governments' attempts to improve their performance and accountability.
Moreover, we found the mediating effect of single-loop learning on double-loop learning.
Overall, the findings provide insight into antecedents of and strategies for fostering single-loop and double-loop learning, and ultimately performance improvement of local governments.
Using existing literatureand practice, empirical research work was undertaken in two organizations tovalidate, or otherwise, key elements of learning organization theory and practice andto identify patterns in the content and process of creating a learning organization.
Alearning-in-organizations model is then developed which combines learningorganization theory and practice, adult learning theory, and the management ofchange literature.
The multi-layered character of the learning-in-organizations modelsynthesizes key aspects of the learning processes in the organizations studied.
Themodel also provides a framework (a) for research purposes to systematically defineand evaluate learning in organizations, and (b) for management, groups, andindividuals to use as a prompt or aide-memoire to develop and evaluate learningactivity in their organizations. How do responses to the above questions change our understanding ofwhat constitutes a 'learning organization'?The research shows that much of current learning organization description remainsanecdotal and rhetorical.Confusion exists regarding how learning in organizations isdeveloped and assessed.Research results indicated that there are some different patterns of effects and different impacts for single-loop and double-loop learning.The goal and mission orientation, strategic planning, external networks, and political officials' participation are facilitative factors to double-loop learning but do not have a significant relationship to single-loop learning, while the utilization of IT is important to single-loop learning but not to double-loop learning.Key questions guiding the research include: What is meant by 'learning'? The research is qualitative to reveal more of the subtleties of the learning process atthe individual and group levels in organizations.The research process comprises fourmain activities: a review of existing learning organization literature and practice toidentify key proposed characteristics of a learning organization; a documentary searchin the two research sites; in-depth interviews in the two research sites; and the writingof case studies and their comparison to reveal learning patterns and processes.Key learning organization hallmarks and characteristics areoften flawed.In addition, defining and evaluating learning in organizations is oftencarried out in a rudimentary fashion.To answer this research question, based on past research, this study develops a theory composed of six factors to assess what seems to impact single and double-loop learning based on: 1) structural factors, 2) cultural factors, 3) learning forums, 4) performance management systems, 5) network characteristics, and 6) external stakeholder's participation.We found strong support for our organizational learning models, and variables representing each of the six theoretical factors were significant.