Students need to evaluate the problem then represent it symbolically.
However, the odds are that in any given classroom you have students who use both stages of operational thinking.
So, how do you teach logic to students, some of whom may not have developed the ability to perform reasoning in situations with which they lack concrete experiences?
The trick is to make the logic process as hands on, and physical, as possible for your students.
Make logic kinesthetic, so that students have a physical movement to associate with the steps in the logical reasoning process.
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4 buses are needed in order to transport all the students to the zoo.
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The ability to solve the math problem and reason out the answer are both important as these help students be confident about the math they are learning.
Consider the following problem: If each bus holds 44 students, how many buses are needed so that all 154 third graders can go to the zoo?