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The two systems are identical except for the order of references. Essential notes provide information about location, such as a URL for online works. For books with more than 1 author, names are separated by a comma. In both systems, numbers within the text refer to the end references. List authors in the order in which they appear in the original text, followed by a period. Journal titles are generally abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations maintained by the ISSN International Centre.
Chapter or other part of a book, different authors Rapley R.
Principles and techniques of biochemistry and molecular biology.
1903: American nervousness and the economy of cultural change [dissertation]. Blanco EE, Meade JC, Richards WD, inventors; Ophthalmic Ventures, assignee.
Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other mammals.
Scientific Style and Format presents three systems for referring to references (also known as citations) within the text of a journal article, book, or other scientific publication: 1) citation–sequence; 2) name–year; and 3) citation–name.
These abbreviated references are called in-text references. Place of publication: publisher; date of publication [date updated; date accessed]. Washington (DC): ASM Press; 2002 [accessed February 28, 2014]. The same number is used for subsequent in-text references to the same document. In citation–name, the end references are listed alphabetically by author. St Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; c1994–2005 [accessed 2005 Jun 20]. Online journal article Format: Author(s) of article. Mumps outbreaks across England and Wales in 2004: observational study. Date of publication [date updated; date accessed];volume(issue):location. A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) may be included in the notes in addition to a URL, if available: Savage E, Ramsay M, White J, Beard S, Lawson H, Hunjan R, Brown D. For more details and many more examples, see Chapter 29 of Scientific Style and Format. For the in-text reference, use parentheses and list author(s) by surname followed by year of publication. Effects of aerosolized albuterol on physiologic responses to exercise in standardbreds. Grammar Girl: Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. Each example of an end reference is accompanied here by an example of a corresponding in-text reference. See Appendix 29.1 in Scientific Style and Format for more information. (Mazan and Hoffman 2001) For articles with 3 to 10 authors, list all authors in the end reference; in the in-text reference, list only the first, followed by “et al.” Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. For numerous specific examples, see Chapter 29 of the 8th edition of Scientific Style and Format. Extent can include information about pagination or number of volumes and is considered optional. For books with more than 10 authors, list the first 10 followed by “et al.” Wenger NK, Sivarajan Froelicher E, Smith LK, Ades PA, Berra K, Blumenthal JA, Certo CME, Dattilo AM, Davis D, De Busk RF, et al. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (US); 1995. Author(s) plus editor(s) or translator(s) Klarsfeld A, Revah F. The following examples illustrate the citation–sequence and citation–name systems. Notes can include information of interest to the reader, such as language of publication other than English; such notes are optional. Organization as author Advanced Life Support Group.