In March 2014, the Pakistani government met with Taliban representatives for peace talks.However, talks collapsed after another Taliban affiliated attack on Karachi’s airport left dozens dead.
Since 2002, more than 50,000 people have died due to terrorism, and the economic economic cost is estimated to be around US$120 billion.
Pakistan also suffers sectarian and ethnic violence between its diverse populations.
Sunni-Islamist violence increased from 2012 onwards and continues in 2017.
Perpetrators include Taliban affiliated groups, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, and ISIS.
Sunni-Shi’a tensions escalated as a result of Pakistan’s support for Saddam Hussein in the Iran-Iraq war, and due to covert support of Sunni-Shi’a militant organisations by Saudi Arabia and Iran.
The relationship continued to worsen with the Taliban’s increasing power in Afghanistan during the 1990s.
Many people believe that nation-building is evolutionary rather than revolutionary, that is takes a long time and is a social process that cannot be jump-started from outside.
The evolution of the Italian city-states into a nation, the German city-states into the Zollverein customs union and later a nation, the multiple languages and cultural groups in France into the nation of France, the development of China from the warring kingdoms, took a very long time, and were the result, not only of political leadership, but of changes in technology and economic processes (the agricultural and then industrial revolutions), as well as communication, culture and civil society, and many other factors.
Particularly in Africa and the Middle East, new political borders paid little attention to national identities in the creation of new states.
Thus the notion of nation-state, a nation which developed the governmental apparatus of a state, was often nonsense.