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Here are three examples of such a combination: An Introduction is usually clearer and more logical when it separates what the authors have done (the task) from what the paper itself attempts or covers (the object of the document).In other words, the task clarifies your contribution as a scientist, whereas the object of the document prepares readers for the structure of the paper, thus allowing focused or selective reading. " Although papers can be organized into sections in many ways, those reporting experimental work typically include Materials and Methods, Results, and Discussion in their body.You can similarly prepare your readers for an upcoming division into subsections by introducing a global paragraph between the heading of a section and the heading of its first subsection. Mention these things early in your paragraph, ideally in the first sentence.
An explicit preview would be phrased much like the object of the document: "This section first . Do not make readers guess: Make sure the paragraph's first sentence gives them a clear idea of what the entire paragraph is about.
If you feel you cannot or need not do more than list items, consider using a table or perhaps a schematic diagram rather than a paragraph of text.
Thus, as you organize the body of your paper into sections and perhaps subsections, remember to prepare your readers for the structure ahead at all levels. To make this section interesting, explain the choices you made in your experimental procedure: What justifies using a given compound, concentration, or dimension?
You already do so for the overall structure of the body (the sections) in the object of the document at the end of the Introduction. What is special, unexpected, or different in your approach?
To spark interest among your audience — referees and journal readers alike — provide a compelling motivation for the work presented in your paper: The fact that a phenomenon has never been studied before is not, in and of itself, a reason to study that phenomenon.
Write the context in a way that appeals to a broad range of readers and leads into the need.
For the task, the effects of a range of inhibitors of connexin channels, such as the connexin mimetic peptides Gap26 and Gap27 and anti-peptide antibodies, on calcium signaling in cardiac cells and He La cells expressing connexins. In any case, the paragraphs in these sections should begin with a topic sentence to prepare readers for their contents, allow selective reading, and — ideally — get a message across.
Even the most logical structure is of little use if readers do not see and understand it as they progress through a paper. Most Materials and Methods sections are boring to read, yet they need not be.
In a sense, they reveal the beginning and end of the story — briefly — before providing the full story.
Second, they move the more detailed, less important parts of the body to the end of the paper in one or more appendices so that these parts do not stand in the readers' way.